I test web services fairly infrequently in proportion to “standard” web applications or network penetration tests. I guess organizations are still trying to get their hands around general web application security or are oblivious to the risk of attacks at the web services layer, unaware of the high potential for remote code execution among other security risks. Due to the limited number of web services penetration tests performed, it often takes me a little bit of time to refresh myself on how I like to setup the environment. I thought others might be in the same boat, hence this post.
There are some other good posts and resources out there for web services testing, but I thought I would go into a little more detail on some things that I’ve seen and steps necessary to automate a portion of the testing. This post is geared towards testing REST based web services, though some of the steps and approaches could be used in SOAP based web services testing as well. I will be using soapUI and Burp Suite Pro, along with Burp macros to facilitate in the testing.
The first thing that needs to be done is to setup soapUI to use Burp as the proxy for all connections. This can be done by navigating to File->Preferences->Proxy Settings. My setup is currently listening on the loopback on port 8083 (make sure to enable the proxy as well):
Next, I need to create a project by navigating to File->New soapUI Project, providing a project name and the associated WADL file (if you are testing SOAP based web services, you would use a WSDL file). I also want soapUI to create a test suite for me:
The next screen involves configuring the test suite. I like to create a single test case for each method, solely based on how it is laid out in the UI:
Give the test suite an intuitive name. If there are different web services methods, you could consider naming the test suite after that specific resource:
Depending upon how the web services were defined in the description language, you might be prompted about test steps being unique. In this case, I just accept the names that soapUI selects by default. If the web services layer can be accessed over HTTP, then you are pretty much ready to go for testing purposes now; however, if the web services must be accessed over HTTPS (hopefully this is the case), then there are a few more steps.
First, expand the test suite and then expand the “Test Steps.” Double click on one of the steps and at the top you should see the actual host/port to which you are connecting. Click on this drop down and select “[edit current]” if using HTTPS:
This should be edited to use HTTP instead:
The SSL connection fails from soapUI to the Burp proxy without the above due to the fact that Burp is MiTM’ing the connection. There is probably some way to export the keys/certificates used by Burp and import them into soapUI to avoid this but the method I use here just winds up being easier for me. Once you have edited the link to use HTTP, you will see the HTTP version as an option in the drop downs for the other test methods. You can either double click each one, click on the drop down, then select the new HTTP version, or you can click once on each one and change the option in the “REST TestRequest Properties” box below the “Test Steps” (which should be much faster):
Now, you need to setup a proxy in Burp that sends communication received over HTTP from soapUI to the web service over HTTPS. In the Burp “Proxy” tab, go to the “Options” sub tab and click the “Add” button. Once again, for this example I am listening on port 8083 on the loopback:
Click on the “Request handling” tab to ensure communication to the web service is over HTTPS by selecting “Force use of SSL.” In this example, I am using test.example.com and the remote port is 8443:
At this point, we can send requests from soapUI, intercept and modify them in Burp, and then get a response from the web service. If the web service doesn’t require authentication (unlikely and scary if true), then you can now perform all the testing you want with and through Burp. Or, if the web service is using Basic, Digest, or NTLM authentication, you can configure Burp to automatically authenticate within Options->Connections->Platform Authentication. However, if the web service has implemented an alternative way of authenticating and granting access to the web service method calls then you are going to need to create some macro’s to automate checking for whether the connection is authenticated, and if not, re-authenticate each time automatically before performing the test. This is especially important if you want to use Burp’s Scanner and Intruder tools.
The rest of this post is going to focus on one process flow that I’ve seen that seems to be common for authenticating access to web services. In this particular case, the authentication service is the Jasig Central Authentication Service (CAS). The flow of the authentication service is basically:
- Access form based web login and receive a Session ID token,
- POST credentials to the web site, including the Session ID token,
- Attempt to access the REST service,
- If the access ticket is current, return results of REST service method call, if not, redirect to login page to generate a new Session ID,
- Login page redirects (without the need for credentials) to the authentication service, including a ticket ID in the redirect URL,
- Authentication service accepts the ticket generated by the login page and grants access to resources (this is often for a very limited window – typically between 5 and 10 seconds) and redirects to requested web service method,
- Web service method is finally called and results are obtained.
What we need to build is a macro that first checks to see if we are authenticated, and if not, it performs the above steps to re-authenticate. This is all the more important due to the fact that access is typically granted for a very small window of 5 to 10 seconds as described above. The first step is to work through this process within the browser. Connect to the login page, enter valid credentials, and then make a REST call. The next step is to create a macro out of the requests/responses produced by this test.
To start, navigate to Options->Sessions, and then click the “Add” button in the “Session Handling Rules” section. Give the macro a name that makes sense:
Now, set the scope for the macro rule in the “Scope” tab. For web services in particular, since I will be performing most of the testing via soapUI, I select all but “Extender” in the “Tools Scope” options. I need the authentication to be automatic no matter what I am doing. I also like to set the scope to custom to make sure the rule only applies in the specific instance in which I want it to apply:
Then I need to actually set the scope. For this example, it is all over HTTPS, the host is test.example.com, the port being used is 8443, and the REST url is always prefixed with “/path/to/resource.” So, when you click the “Add” button to include a new item in scope, you get:
Now we are ready for the meat of the macro. This macro is intended to check whether the session is valid. So back on the “Details” tab of the main session handling rule editor, navigate to the “Rule Actions” section, click the “Add” button, and add a rule to “Check session is valid.”
Edit this rule and configure it to run a macro to validate the session. This will require you to “Add” a macro for the check. When you click “Add”, select the request that you previously made in the browser after authentication to the test web services method. In several instances, there has been an “/about” method that returns general information about the API or service and that is what I have used in this example. Then provide a meaningful name:
Click ok to save this individual macro. Next, we need to configure what to tell Burp to look for in the response to that initial request to determine whether we have valid credentials. There are many options here, but the example assumes that the response body will contain the literal (case insensitive) string “test1.1b” if the session is still valid:
As shown in the screenshot above, if the session is invalid, we want to run another macro. This macro will be used to re-authenticate to the web service. The first step is to click “Add” and create another macro. The next step is to select all of the applicable requests made in the test made via the browser. In this example, it follows the flow listed above where there is a request to the login page, credentials are submitted, a request to the REST method is made, a request is made to the login service to obtain a ticket for calling REST methods, a request to the auth service is made to create the ticket, and then a final request is made to the test REST method:
The first request should be the initial connection to the login form page. Click on the “Configure item” button for this request, and select “Add cookies…” We select this option because we want to add the initial Session ID cookie received in the response to the second request which includes submitting our credentials:
The next request to configure is the actual POSTing of credentials to the login page. Note that the Session ID received in the initial request to the login page is included in the POST:
This request needs to be configured such that all submitted data is NOT URL encoded, and cookies should be configured to be added to the cookie jar if received and previously provided cookies are used in the initial request. This ensures that we will continue to use the Session ID provided, but if a new one is generated for some reason we will use that one in future requests as it is the most recent:
This is followed up with a request to the login page using a new Session ID generated in the above request to the REST method. In this case, the Session ID is used as part of the URL:
We need to configure this request. We want the Session ID provided in the response to the REST method to be used as the jsessionid parameter in the request to the login page. We want to add any cookies received in the request to the cookie jar and use any cookies already in the cookie jar in the request. In order to use the previously provided Session ID as part of the URL, we need to configure the parameter to be derived from the immediately preceding response and not to be URL encoded:
In addition, as seen in the above screenshot, the response to this request includes a redirect to the auth service which includes a ticket that has been generated for authentication. The response includes something along the lines of:
We need to grab this ticket value so that it can be included in the request to the auth service so that we use a new and valid ticket to obtain access. We do this by clicking the “Add” button in the “Custom parameter locations in response” section. I use the same name as what is sent in the response, and pull out the ticket value by capturing the values between “?ticket=” and the next header which is “Content-Length”:
Next, we make a request to the auth service using the ticket provided by the login service. This should result in the granting of a ticket, and thus access to all the REST methods for some short period of time:
For this request to succeed, we need to configure it to use the response from the request to the login service as the parameter value within the URL in the request to the auth service:
This should be about it in terms of this re-authentication macro. To recap, we:
- Made a request to the login page and received a Session ID,
- Submitted our credentials and the Session ID to the login page,
- Made a request to a sample/test REST method,
- Made a request to the login page in order to obtain a ticket, part of this request included a new Session ID generated in the request to the sample/test REST method,
- Made a request to the auth service using the ticket provided by the login service, thus granting us access for a limited period.
I actually included a follow up request to the sample/test method when originally creating this demonstration but I don’t believe it was necessary.
The macro is complete and it is safe to click “Ok.” Two more check boxes need to be checked as part of the session handling rule, they are: “Update current request with parameters matched from final macro response” and “Update current request with cookies from session handling cookie jar.” This rule is almost complete and you can click “Ok” in the rule editor window. You should now be back in the main window for the rule (where the name/scope/etc are edited). The last step is to make sure that as part of this rule, requests from the session handling cookie jar are used:
This rule should be configured to essentially update all cookies:
The session handling rule is ready. Now we need to prime Burp to use the automated Scanner. Go back to soapUI and double click on a “Test Step” (aka REST method/service call). There will probably be options for adding values to parameters, which you should do, and then a green arrow to click and generate a request:
Input data into the parameters and send the request for each REST method. Now, you can go into the Burp “Target” tab, right click on the root resource path and select “Actively scan this branch.” In addition, I suggest sampling some juicy looking methods by right clicking the actual full REST URL in the “Target” tab or the “Proxy” tab and sending to Intruder. Make sure you also manually test all or a bunch of the methods by editing the parameter data within soapUI, clicking the request button in soapUI, setting Burp’s proxy to intercept requests and modify the requests, and then observing responses.
I hope this was helpful. Happy hunting!
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